In 1862 the first collection of "Poems of Joseph Fedkovych" was published in Lviv.
Kolmogorov’s multifaceted activity was highly praised by the Communist Party and the Government: he was awarded six orders of Lenin, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, and many medals; he was a laureate of the Lenin Prize, a Hero of Socialist Labor.
Yuriy Fedkovych: biographical information. Abstract
Yuriy Fedkovych initiated the development of realistic Ukrainian culture in Bukovyna, became an exponent of the home and aspirations of the working people, consciously put his word on guard "those little dumb slaves."
"Fedkovych is a predominantly lyrical talent," wrote I. Franko. souls felt.
And in that lies the enchanting power of his poetry, in that lies its guarantee of its vitality as long as our language lives. Fedkovych put the best part of "his soul" into his poetry and such poetry does not die, does not disappear … "these words were said in 1886 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the writer’s literary activity, but they still have not lost their significance.the best part of the creative heritage of Yuri Fedkovych – a talented, original poet and novelist, who before Ivan Franko was the most outstanding writer in Western Ukraine.
Yu. Fedkovych was born on August 8, 1834 in the village of Storozhynets Putyliv (now the village of Putyla, Chernivtsi region), in the mountainous part of the Bukovyna region, which is called Hutsul region.
The formation of the character and worldview of the future writer was influenced by the family environment, folk art, the reality of the time.
For the rest of his life, Fedkovych retained the most tender feelings for his working mother and older sister. folk art became a great school of life and aesthetics for him. The social contrasts of the surrounding reality were revealed to him by their unattractive features at a young age. This reality oppressed him more and more, left more and more carbs in his sensitive heart, prompted him to reflect on his own and the people’s destiny and, finally, forced him to fight against evil and untruths affirmed by the then socio-political constitution.
Fedkovych received his primary education in the village of Kiselytsia from a private teacher. After that he studied for two years at the so-called lower school in Chernivtsi. In the "Moldavian period" of his life he had an awakening desire for deeper knowledge, for self-education, for poetic creativity.
Later, in 1852, Fedkovych came to Chernivtsi and in the same year entered the military service, to which he gave 10 years of young life. Ten years of service in the army is the most difficult period in his life. Returning to Chernivtsi with his unit, Fedkovych established contacts with several Ukrainian and German writers.
Here, in Chernivtsi, in 18621, the poetic voice of Yuri Fedkovych was first heard publicly. In the polemical brochure "Word for word to the editor of" Word "it is directed against the Lviv editorial newspaper" Word ".
In 1862 the first collection of "Poems of Joseph Fedkovych" was published in Lviv. They testified that a talented, original poet-democrat came to Ukrainian literature, who, becoming a follower of Shevchenko’s traditions, started the literature of folk broadcasting in Bukovyna.
Fedkovych’s literary and social-cultural activities originated first in his native village of Storozhynets-Putyliv, where he settled after his military service, later in Lviv, where the poet lived in 1872-43, and later in Chernivtsi. Conditions for work were difficult, for his freedom-loving views, the poet was persecuted at the end of Fedkovych’s life, encouraged by the revival of social and cultural life in the region, intensified his activities, as evidenced by the appearance in Chernivtsi newspaper " Bukovyna "published in Ukrainian.
For three years, the poet edited this newspaper, promoting in Bukovina progressive views, advanced Ukrainian and Russian literature, promoting the idea of unity of the whole people, then separated by the border of the two countries.
Yu. Fedkovych, the editor of the Bukovyna newspaper, died on January 11 at the age of 54.
Fedkovych’s work is quite broad in scope, but not equivalent in its ideological and artistic content.
Before Fedkovych’s release in Bukovyna, no one wrote in the vernacular. The work of such "poets" as Gavrilo Arodam, Vasyl Ferleevich and others was far from real life.
"Fedkovych’s work in its peak manifestations is a valuable heritage of progressive Ukrainian literature. It has a significant impact, – said Rylsky, – on the establishment and development of realism and folk literature in Western Ukraine, instilled in the hearts of Bukovinians and Galicians a sense of fraternal unity and community. The writer, as a true patriot of his people, did not share the separatist ideas of bourgeois nationalists about the separation of Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia from the blood brothers of the Dnieper. "
The poet’s dreams came true in our beautiful unique time. Reunited in a single, inseparable fraternal family, the Ukrainian peasant people, like all Ukrainian people, remember with gratitude the name of the writer-democrat, who throughout his life carried love for the oppressed and disadvantaged on the dark night of enslavement of the native land. day of liberation.
1. Yuriy Fedkovych "Selected good narrative ideas Works" Uzhhorod, Karpaty Publishing House 1978
The great German poet Heine. Abstract
The abstract provides information about the life and career of the famous German poet Heine
Heine was born on December 13, 1797 in Dusseldorf on the Rhine.
Significant influence on his mental and moral (but not poetic) development had his mother, a woman very educated, enthusiastic follower of J. J. Rousseau and all the rationalist teachings of the XVIII century.; Heine owed his poetic inclinations and inclination to intellectual work mainly to his maternal uncle, Simon Geldern, a passionate librarian who placed his rich library at his nephew’s disposal, and the fantastic romantic atmosphere of his home strongly influenced his imagination.
When Heine entered the Dusseldorf Lyceum, it began to develop, despite his early age, the seeds of skepticism – under the influence of lectures on the philosophy of Schalmeyer, the dominance at the time in Dusseldorf skeptical spirit of the XVIII century and the religious indifference of the poet’s parents.
A very important place in the history of his intellectual development was given to French, as a result of Napoleon’s rule over Germany, influence, "close communication with the mobile and courageous elements of French nationality." Heine’s moral system also began to manifest itself early on: its introversion, its introversion, its natural and deliberate duality, expressed in the extraordinary softness of the soul, on the one hand, and quite the opposite properties, on the other; the beginning of a number of his love passions, important because they found a highly poetic reflection in his writing, also belongs to the same period.
After Heine left the lyceum, his father placed him in one of the Frankfurt banking offices, to study the promissory note case, and then as a clerk in the grocery store. It is clear that the future poet reacted to these classes with extreme antipathy and two months later ran home; but his father immediately transferred him, for the same commercial purposes, to Hamburg, to Henry’s uncle, Solomon Heine, the financial ace there; thanks to his assistance, Henry set up a short-lived commission office.
The first stimulus for poetic activity was Heine’s unhappy love for his cousin Amalia, which was reflected in the first collection of his works: "Traumbilder". Convinced of the young man’s aversion to the trade profession, his parents decided to send him to university, law school, and with the support of Solomon Heine, he found himself in 1819 in Bonn, where at that time were professors McKeldey, Mittermeier, August Schlegel.
With little practice in law, Heine was all the more sympathetic to lectures on history, the history of literature, and aesthetics, and especially loved and respected August Schlegel. Schlegel strongly developed in him and already not far from him romanticism, realized the importance of Shakespeare, introduced him more closely to Byron. Under these impressions, many purely lyrical "songs" and the beginning of the tragedy "Almanzor" were created then in Heine.
Having stayed at the University of Bonn. less than a year, he moved to Göttingen, where, with very few exceptions, reigned heartless pedantry, suppressed the rich food of Heine’s satirical observation and his pessimistic mood. Fourteen months later, he moved to Berlin (1821).
His stay in Berlin, despite the growing political reaction at the time, had a very beneficial effect on him, thanks to his close relations with intellectual and literary circles (Rachel Warnhagen von Ense, where the cult of Goethe, and Baroness Hohenhausen, where they bowed to Byron) University, headed by (Hans, Bopp, Wolf) was Hegel.
Having immediately become an ardent Hegelian, vigorously participating in the liberal "Society of Culture and Science of Judaism" and at the same time undermining his health with sensual pleasures, Heine at the same time gradually entered the literary field. At the end of 1821 appeared in print a separate book once published in magazines, with the addition of new, poems in which the author declared himself a romantic, a singer of love and a poet in the folk spirit.
They were followed, in early 1823, by the tragedies "Almanzor" and "Ratcliffe" and a collection of purely lyrical poems "Lyrisches Intermezzo" that consolidated his fame. He had, however, not to suffer from slander and insinuations, for his bold attitude to many traditional issues of religion, morality and manners (in "Almanzor"). This had a hard time on his financial situation, because the enemies put him in a stupid light in front of Uncle Solomon, at whose expense he lived then. All this was joined by a severe nervous illness.